book summary of “ Predictably Irrational ” by Dan Ariely

Predictably Irrational

Man is a powerful claimant of wisdom. We consider ourselves the masters of creatures and beat our decision-making power like a club over the creatures of the universe. Whatever it is, we are human beings and we can use our thinking better than any other creature. Strangely, of course, the result we achieve in our lives is at war with the wisdom that is expected of us. History is full of wise men who have made the biggest, funniest, and most costly mistakes. In fact, having intellect is one thing and being able to use them is another. In this article, we look at the summary of Dr. Dan Ariely’s book “Predictably Irrational ” and look for signs of using wisdom or irrationality in our decisions. If you do not consider yourself a perfect human being and you are looking to discover your unwanted nonsense, stay with us until the end of this speech.

Discover an interesting truth about our complex selves

In situations of irrationality, it should be mentioned that we want something but we do not know where the desire for that thing comes from. We choose something but we do not understand why we make such a choice between that thing and the other. Why is it suggested at all that we go from worse to bad and wash our hearts of meaningless worse.

What, what concept or mystery has dried up behind our decisions and guides our intellect in a predictable way? In fact, the truth of our choices and decisions goes back to something other than the good and bad of an option. We compare similar things in every moment of our lives, and based on that, we recognize the value or worthlessness of a work, goal, or thing.

For example, when buying a blue pen, we compare it with another blue pen. It never occurs to us to compare a blue car to a blue car, a lake, or our own home. Because their level of value and inherent nature vary from earth to sky.

In this issue of elections, there is a subtle but very influential point. In fact, we humans are weak in choosing things that are absolute. For example, it is difficult for us to choose between two glasses of the same shape and price. But when another option comes into play, we behave strangely and make very quick and easy choices. Let me give you an example.

Imagine that you want to buy a car. The dealer will offer you three cars that are reasonably priced. The first car is electric and looks very beautiful.

The second car is gasoline and the third car burns gasoline but needs a minor overhaul. Most likely, you will choose the second car. Because you have the option to compare it. Let’s explain a little more. In the first step, your mind summarizes the selection story into three parts: “electric car”, “gasoline car” and “gasoline car”. The electric car is abandoned from the beginning. Because there is no sample to compare among our options. However, there are two petrol cars and they can be compared. Now it becomes easier. You will choose between a healthy and ready-to-drive petrol car and a car that has to be delivered to a repair shop; that means a healthy gasoline car. This happens to all the choices in our lives.

Our minds and the piles of anchors planted in it!

Everything has a price. But this price does not always mean it is worth it. This is especially true of the things we are approaching for the first time. Let us ask you a question. What do you think is the value of a multi-thousand-year-old jar? $ 1,000? 100 thousand dollars? One million dollars?

It is simply not possible to offer a number for the price of this ancient jar. Because most likely, before this speech, you did not decide to buy an ancient jar. As a result, your mind has no criteria for pricing. But if you happen to come across an ancient jar with the price written on it, you can easily comment on the price of the jar you want and even price it in the clothes of a jar expert.

Your mind uses the price jar as an anchor to price another similar product. If you know the price of an ancient jar, then you will measure all the ancient jars in the world with the same price anchor.

Interestingly, our minds do not consider the number below a product as an anchor. The story changes when we are really serious or curious about buying a product.

Zero maze story

Predictably Irrational

In our minds, different types of intelligence, cleverness and, of course, irrationality are defined. One of the most interesting is to get an infinite amount of free stuff. We can hardly resist offering free things. Even if we do not need that free thing, offer or product at all, we still come to the conclusion that having this free thing is much better than not having it.

What drives us to get free things is the pain of shopping. When we buy something, we give our money to the other party in exchange for receiving a defined value. Even though we got what we wanted in this deal, the pain of emptying our pockets does not leave us alone for a moment.

Free things with their presence upset the equation of this game. When we get something for free, we do not pay for the value we receive. This means that we are not going to lose anything and experience pain.

Because of this, our minds are fascinated by free things. Even if he does not achieve the value he is really looking for in the meantime, he still cannot resist the sweetness of achieving a value for which no price has been paid. Precisely because of this, a significant portion of free stuff is dangerous. Because they lead us to make decisions that we would never normally make without the presence of a factor called “being free.”

There always things that are not calculated with money

They say it is not something that cannot be bought with money, yet the behavior of the people shows that there are great and very valuable things in the world for which no price can be set. For instance, when your friend shares your food, a stranger comes to your aid to lift a carton, your mother cooks hot and delicious food for you, or when true love strikes a chord in your heart, trying to pay money is an insult. If these people want to include their love and kindness in you, you cannot grasp the reality of this love and kindness with any amount of money.

Of course, you can always buy a delicious food press from the best restaurant in town, but it will never equal your mother’s food cooked just for you. You can always hire a worker to carry your belongings, but none of them work out of compassion for the person who wants to help you voluntarily.

You can always use your money to buy the presence of others in your life, but you can never get real love with paper money. In fact, when someone does something for the happiness of their heart, they will do much more and better than when they are paid to do it.

So, do not measure everything by money. But remember not to overdo it. For example, when your friend helps you to buy a product in installments, you should not abuse his grace and train a few of your colleagues to look for him again and ask him again, or when you want to buy a gift for someone, the price should not be Pull it to the other side and open the money leg to the field.

This is a direct way to ruin your good relationship with others and you should not be surprised if you are called an avid person.

Man’s fierce battle with backwardness and irrationality

Handing over various tasks to tomorrow, which is not known to happen in a few days, is one of our human habits and another sign of our irrationality. We may think that by turning our backs on doing things in the future, we will reduce the pain and hassle of doing it and be a little more happy and comfortable.

Unaware that these things have not been done, all the time we think we have put them in the future, they go somewhere in the corner of our minds and do not leave the moments of our poor mind alone. To get rid of this hidden and destructive habit, we must do something so that an external coercive force monitors the process of our work.

In this case, we find ourselves in a time staple and much better able to escape from the backlash and the pressure of doing the hard work.

Take seriously the impact of ownership irrationality on your soul and psyche

A sense of ownership is an inner passion that seeks to take account of the things we love. The story goes to the point where we tie the value of owning something to our memories and experiences, deepening our sense of ownership.

If there is someone who looks at our favorite item as a device that can be bought and sold, we offer him such a price that he understands how much we value that object.

Unaware that our counterpart, without a sense of ownership, has robbed him of the power of logic and has become irrational, he declares his price based on the true value of that product.

Our love for what we have increases the depth of our attachment to it and reduces the pain of losing it. After all, because we focus on losing that thing, we make mistakes in estimating its true value. The problem is that not everyone looks at it like we do.

For this reason, what is far more valuable to us than all the assets in the world is, in other words, a worthless tool. If you want to win a real deal, you have to clear your mind of all the feelings of ownership that make your wisdom irrational and look at the true value of the present and its value in the future. In this case, you will reconsider many of your decisions.

Having lots of options, good or bad?

For a wise person, having a variety of options on the table is a smart move. Because it opens the door to return to us. But in reality, having a second or even a third option is nothing but confusion, wasting life, and paying exorbitant material and spiritual costs.

The important thing is to know that not all the options on our desk are important and valuable. After all, waiting to discover the best option is an absurd illusion that only seizes opportunities.

By understanding this, we can gradually reduce the number of these options to pave the way for making a decisive decision in our lives. Only then can we act on the decisions we have made, put aside irrationality, get feedback, and articulate our path.

Beliefs change our expectation of everything

The way we look at the world and all the big and small adventures that take place in it is tied to our beliefs. If we believe that something is good, tasty, fragrant, efficient and useful, we will undoubtedly achieve such results. But if we believe that something is bad, ugly, stinky, inefficient, and harmful, these are exactly the consequences.

Because our mind puts a new filter on our eyes and leads us to achieve these results. Good or bad, bitter or sweet, failed or victorious, all of this is a direct result of our belief in a variety of subjects. The interesting thing is that beliefs can be transmitted to others through indoctrination.

For example, if we tell someone who has never eaten a new type of food that the taste of this food is very delicious and pleasant, he puts the food in his mouth expecting and believing in a delicious taste, and he will most likely like it. Because he already believes that this taste is special and lovely.

At this point, the indoctrinated belief overrides the experience and changes everything. This is also a kind of irrationality that has spread in our minds.

The narrow line between honesty and delinquency

If you look at the news sources, you will see detailed reports on the increase in crime, theft, fraud and the like. They write these reports as if these thieves are the cause of all the misery, bankruptcy, embezzlement and tax evasion. The interesting thing is that no one takes a embezzler as hard as a car recorder. Why? Wasn’t what they both did moving in the wrong direction? So what is the cause of these different behaviors? Does delinquency mean something new for each class?

In fact, it can be said that there are two types of crime. In the first type, the crime is committed by an offender. He makes a living by breaking the law, committing acts such as stealing, extorting, and looting others. Therefore, when such a person commits a wrongdoing, all the wrongdoing of his past goes in front of the eyes of the rest of the parade.

He is a criminal and the society expects him to continue doing his wrongdoing. The second type of crime is committed by people who are honest and lovable. Work against them is either not visible, or is rejected, or given to them as a right at all. Since whatever it is, they are honest, forgiving and error-free. No one should doubt them and their wrongdoings.

In the meantime, there are people like you and me who are neither stealing nor delinquent, nor are we so big and honest that we do not commit any wrongdoing. People like us stay good as long as it benefits them. There is something in us ordinary people that makes it easier to resist doing wrong.

We seek heartfelt satisfaction in doing well. For example, we help someone who has fallen and his wallet has fallen on the ground, and it does not even occur to us to snatch his bag. Because we want to experience the pleasure of doing this good and praiseworthy social work. But we ourselves may cheat one or two questions while trying, lie to our friend, and manipulate our tax bill a little.

As long as we do not do something very great and harmful to ourselves and others, we are safe and our conscience will not feel guilty.

Likewise, it is much easier for us to cheat on things that have nothing to do with cash than to take a handful of banknotes from other people’s pockets. Due to this fact, we can easily make the right excuses and treat ourselves that yes, these are not taking money from the pocket of God’s creation.

We only played with stocks a little bit, manipulated that account, took a slot machine and did not return it, and so on. There is no problem at all, because many people also played with our shares, manipulated our accounts, borrowed our machines and never returned them.

The amount of excuses we make for ourselves to justify cheating, hypocrisy, and irrationality is staggering. It is enough to take such actions once and convince ourselves with good and colorful excuses. From then on, it becomes normal for us to do such things, and we may even consider them our right and an intangible revenge of life.

An intangible irrationality in order to gain independence

Many of us value the independence of our thoughts, ideas and opinions more than we think. This hidden value leads us to make decisions independent of the thoughts of others. In this way, with the goal of making decisions contrary to the collective, we sometimes give up the things we love and sacrifice them. The result is that instead of getting what we love, we force ourselves to love what we have.

We apply this method to the big and small decisions of our lives. For example, when we want to order food, if we hear that the table next to us has ordered type “A” food, we will make sure that we receive “type” food; Even if we know that type B food does not suit our taste at all.

But if the ordering process is such that none of the customers smell another order, we can easily and without worries go to the food we like. In fact, if something does not manipulate our intellectual independence, we will easily live our normal lives.

Have a free lunch at the expense of behavioral economics

In a simple classification, we can divide economics into “standard economics” and “behavioral economics”. In standard economics, man is considered a very wise being free from any irrationality.

He is a person whose decisions are all based on wisdom, careful scrutiny of statistics, and the discovery of the true value of everything. Such a person makes very few mistakes and immediately after each mistake, learns from it and never repeats it again. In fact, standard economics seeks to build an ideal human paradigm to stick it to ordinary human beings.

This economy tells people what they should be like. Yet, it does not show them a way to do this. Standard economics is based on concepts such as “scarcity.” This means that you will never find a way to get free opportunities. Because all resources are being destroyed. This feeling can be compared to the laws of the forest; Eat or be eaten!

But behavioral economics sees man as a creature who does not make very wise decisions. A person who tries to define behavioral economics makes a lot of wrong decisions, his life is full of irrationality, and worst of all, he does not learn from his mistakes.

For this reason, he makes a repetitive mistake over and over again. Behavioral economics does not believe in an ideal human being. This economy seeks to show people how to make the right decisions.

Behavioral economics, on the other hand, believes that at the heart of human error are opportunities for growth and advancement. This means that by exploring the mistakes you have made and the irrationalities you have committed, you can get pure opportunities for correct and free lunch, and with the same free promise, you can open the way to other promises.

What was Dan Ariely’s message in Predictably Irrational ?

Predictably Irrational

The book “Predictably Irrational “is a valuable collection of Dan Ariely’s experiences and experiments in the field of human behavior. By writing this book, Ariely tried to take a step towards making smarter decisions by showing the roots of human behavior and reducing the volume of mistakes or irrationality. He believes that our awareness of our irrationalities can have a significant impact on our decision-making style.

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